1765 - 22 December 1769
The Treaty of Kaungton
The Treaty of Kaungton was signed on 22 December 1769 and marked the end of the Sino-Burmese War (1765-1769). Burmese forces had successfully resisted four Qing (Manchu) invasions, including a massive fourth invasion of over 60,000 troops sent by the Emperor Qianlong to annex Burma. It was the Qing Empire's greatest defeat.
The Qing armies included elite Bannermen - Manchus and Mongols as well as Han Chinese - brought down from the Russian border. The Burmese side was led by General Maha Thiha Thura and included the Frenchman Pierre de Millard, a captain of the king's artillery.
The portrait is of Mingrui (明瑞), son-in-law of the Emperor and Governor-General of Yunnan and Guizhou, who led the almost-successful third invasion. His army reached Maymyo before being decimated by Burmese defenders. He committed suicide.
Interestingly, though Burma was never annexed by the Qing, over the 19th century many Burmese men began wearing the Manchu cavalry jacket (马褂), taik-pon in Burmese.